This Plan has been developed on the basis of the actual conditions in the municipality of Beijing. It is aimed at fully implementing major policy decisions on air quality taken at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), in accordance with the spirit of the Circular of the State Council on Issuing the Three-Year Action Plan for Protecting the Blue Skies (Guofa  No. 22), and the Guidelines of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee and the People’s Government of Beijing Municipality on Strengthening Eco-environment Protection to enhance Pollution Prevention and Control (Jingfa No.  16).
I. General Requirements and Targets
1. General Requirements
The People’s Government of Beijing Municipality has set an overarching goal for ecological civilization, with priority on the control of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), in line with the decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, as well as the decisions of the National Conference on Environmental Protection. It is part of the city’s efforts to implement the decisions taken at the 19th CPC National Congress, as well as the second and the third plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and his thought on ecological civilization. This will be a participatory process based on the law, with focused efforts on pollution prevention and control relating to diesel trucks, dust, and volatile organic compounds (VOC). This will lead to improvements and adjustments in transportation, industry distribution, energy and land use, as well as to stronger inter-province joint pollution reduction efforts. Better and more detailed city management aimed at comprehensive green development will help preserve Beijing’s blue skies, and ultimately create a world-class metropolis with a harmonious living environment.
The overall target: by 2020, the city’s ambient air quality will be further improved over the 13th Five-Year Plan target, with a significant reduction of PM2.5 concentration and in the number of days with heavy pollution, as well as a notable improvement in air quality so that inhabitants can truly enjoy more blue skies. Total emissions of major air pollutants and of greenhouse gases shall be cut by a large margin. The volumes of nitrogen oxides and VOC shall fall by more than 30%, and there will be a 25% reduction in the number of heavily polluted days all compared with 2015.
Targets for all districts (including Beijing Economic-Technology Development Zone): all districts shall reduce total atmospheric pollutants. By 2020, the annual average concentration of PM2.5 in each district will be: around 46 μg/m³ for Huairou, Miyun and Yanqing; about 49 μg/m³ for Mentougou and Changing; about 52 μg/m³ for Dongcheng, Xicheng, Chaoyang, Haidian, Fengtai, Shijingshan, Shunyi, Fangshan and Pinggu; and around 55μg/m³ for Tongzhou, Daxing and Beijing Economic-Technology Development Zone.
II. Transportation Structure for Lower Mobile Source Emissions
With a more balanced transportation structure, more electric vehicles, faster phase-out of obsolete and run-down ones, and less general vehicle usage, it is hoped pollutants will drop by 30% in 2020 compared with 2017.
3. A Transportation Structure with More Emphasis on Rail Transport
By the end of 2018, the Commission of Transport will draw up a general plan for Beijing’s freight transport, and make adjustments in a number of specific areas. These include greater use of railroads. With the support of relevant national departments, efforts will be made to make full use of existing rail resources. An urban rail network for cargo transport will be built, with existing freight yards fully used to increase the proportion of rail transport for logistics and industrial parks as well as for bulk cargo such as building materials, automobiles, and petrochemical products. The Commission will work with the railway authorities on railroad construction and related transport support.
The Commerce Commission will lead the formulation of a three-year action plan to upgrade the logistics industry into a green system by updating existing logistics and freight yards and turning them into urban distribution centers.
The Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development will promote rail transport for sand and gravel.
The Commission of Economy and Information Technology will encourage automobile plants to transport their vehicles on existing railways when conditions allow. In principle, materials in bulk used in construction shall not be transported by road. By 2020, 10% of urban cargo in Beijing will use rail. (The specific sectors listed below do not include those measures that come under districts’ jurisdiction, which are to be implemented by district governments and by the Administrative Committee of Beijing Economic-Technology Development Zone.)
4. Electric Vehicles
By the end of 2018, a plan to promote new energy vehicles (EV) in place of diesel vehicles will be formulated jointly by the commissions of science and technology, transportation, economy and information technology, urban management, commerce, the postal administration, CAAC North China Regional Administration, and the railway departments. By 2020, the number of new energy vehicles in Beijing will reach 400,000. Relevant departments will be tasked to draw up incentive policies on the road rights and sustain- able operation of new energy vehicles. New additions and replacements of buses, taxis, sanitation trucks, postal, commuting and light logistics vehicles will as much as possible be electric vehicles. The same should apply to new and replacement airport and freight-yard vehicles. By 2020, vehicles used in postal services and city express delivery, as well as light sanitation vehicles and logistics trucks with permits (both under 4.5 tons) will primarily be EVs. Public transport in central and sub-central urban areas will use electric vehicles.
A “green airport”. The Commission of Transport will work with CAAC North China Regional Administration to promote the use of new energy in vehicles for airport ground transportation and support equipment. By 2020, all equipment of the Beijing Capital International Airport at its terminal stands will be powered by ground power units, and more EVs will replace present ground vehicles. The Office of Beijing Daxing International Airport, along with the airport construction units, airline companies and other organizations based there will all purchase vehicles and mechanical equipment powered by new energy. Apart from security considerations or for special equipment, all ground transportation and support equipment will be new energy driven. Aircrafts parked for flight sup- port services will mainly use ground power.
EV charging infrastructure. The Commission of Urban Management will lead efforts to formulate policies and measures for the installation and management of EV charging stations. It will work with all relevant authorities to provide dedicated facilities for city services such as transportation, urban sanitation and logistics, and will also provide public charging facilities. Where possible, it will deploy charging stations and fast charging piles in logistics and industrial parks, large shopping malls, wholesale farmers markets, tourist sites, freight hubs and processing centers, as well as major outlets of postal and express services. By 2020, a charging network covering an average service radius of less than 5 kilometers will be deployed in the flat plain areas, with less than 0.9 kilometers in the central and sub-central city areas, the Zhonguancun and, Huairou Science Cities, the Future Science City, Beijing Economic-Technology Development Zone, the Yanqing competition site of the Beijing Winter Olympics and Paralympics in 2022, and around the new airport.
5. High-Emission Vehicles
The Commission of Transport will spearhead policies for expanding low-emission zones to the whole metropolitan area outside the Sixth Ring Road; the Traffic Management Bureau will tighten inspection and punishment for violations of traffic controls. The Ecological Environment Bureau, the Commission of Transport and the Finance Bureau will further refine and implement incentive policies to phase out obsolete and run-down vehicles. The Commission of Transport will organize revision of the plan to implement more green freight transportation, and together with the Commission of Urban Management will accelerate the phase-out of gas-fueled buses and sanitation vehicles that use lean-burn technology. By 2019, public institutions and state-owned enterprises will basically eliminate their use of diesel trucks on GB III emission standards.
Joint enforcement for excessive emissions. Under this mechanism, the Ecological Environment Bureau will conduct vehicle emissions tests, the Traffic Management Bureau will handle penalties, and the Commission of Transport will supervise vehicle maintenance. Together they will oversee highway checkpoints for the 15 million heavy diesel vehicles that annually enter Beijing and run on main urban roads. A database will be set up for those with excessive emissions, and entry permits will be denied for all non-Beijing vehicles failing to meet emission standards. Harsher penalties will be imposed on local vehicles with excessive emissions. Heavy-duty vehicles in the whole municipality will be checked for nitrogen oxide emissions.
Stricter overall vehicle supervision and inspection. District authorities will carry out on-site inspections for excessive emissions in parking areas for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and non-road mobile machinery at logistics parks, cargo distribution centers, tourist sites, and at industrial and construction sites within their jurisdictions. They will also increase spot checks and regular inspections on taxis, rental cars and driving school cars, checking particularly for whether purification devices are in place and the on-board diagnostic system (OBD) is functioning. The Ecological Environment Bureau will organize checks of in-use vehicles with serious emissions and trace back to their producers, dealers and inspection agencies. The departments of environmental protection and of industry and commerce will impose penalties on those who produce and sell vehicles that fail to meet national and municipal emission standards. The Administration of Quality and Technology Supervision, the Ecological Environment Bureau, and the Traffic Management Bureau will employ a strict “point system” for inspection and testing operators, increase remote monitoring and on-site inspection, crack down on illegal acts such as false exhaust gas testing and modifying vehicle environmental monitoring parameters.
6. Non-Road Mobile Machinery
The Ecological Environment Bureau shall direct efforts to set up a register by the end of 2019 of all non-road mobile machinery and their environmental labeling. Each district will be responsible for registering, labeling and inspecting such machinery within its jurisdiction. By 2020, low emission zones for such machinery will be further extended to key areas in the distant suburbs. The Ecological Environment Bureau, together with relevant departments, will carry out online monitoring of high-use engineering machinery, and establish a city-wide database of emissions.
Tighter administration. Starting in 2019, all departments in charge of municipal housing and urban-rural development, transportation, city management, landscaping, water management, agriculture and quality supervision will put in place a system for non-road mobile machinery in their respective sectors, and will phase out their obsolete and run-down machinery by replacing it with either electric machinery or with ones that meet the GB IV emission standard. They will also refine construction bidding documents and contracts to include conditions for the use and evaluation of non-road mobile machinery in housing construction, municipal utilities infrastructure, water management and landscaping projects, and will work to ensure they are followed. Starting from 2020, all unregistered non-road mobile machinery without environmental labeling will be prohibited. The aforementioned departments will make sure that all industries register their machinery in their respective territorial jurisdictions, and undergo emissions testing.
7. Emission Standards for Motor Vehicles and Non-Road Mobile Machinery
Starting in July 2019, GB VI-B standards will take effect for all heavy-duty gasoline and diesel vehicles deployed in public transport and urban sanitation. Starting in January 2020, the same standards will apply to all light-duty gasoline vehicles and heavy diesel vehicles in all other sectors. The environmental protection departments will tighten inspection on the sale of below-standard motor vehicles and non-road mobile machinery, and penalties for such sales will be imposed by the industry and commerce authorities. There will also be tighter inspection on environmental protection devices in new vehicles, spot checks on these devices at points of sale, and inspection and registration to ensure consistent quality.
8. Oil Products
The Ecological Environment Bureau and Administration of Quality and Technology Supervision will look into the local emission standards under GB VII. Fuel system cleaners that meet relevant criteria will be added to automotive gasoline and diesel before sale. Departments responsible for industry and commerce, and quality supervision will tighten oversight over manufacturers and sellers of oil products, clamp down on the production, sale and use of sub-standard products and automotive urea, prohibit the sale of blended oil components under the name of chemical raw materials, prohibit blending oil with chemical raw materials, ban transport companies from storing and using non-standard oil, and eradicate illegal gas stations.
9. Big Data Analysis and Monitoring
Starting in September 2018, all new, heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Beijing will have devices for online monitoring of their emissions. Already in-use eligible diesel vehicles will install pollution control devices connected to the network for real-time online monitoring of particles and nitrogen oxide emissions. Diesel vehicles that consistently meet standards can be exempted from online inspection.
The Ecological Environment Bureau will also oversee the establishment of an online monitoring platform of emissions from ordinary motor vehicles and non-road mobile machinery. Those in public transport, taxi service, freight transport, sanitation, and building waste removal will be monitored online by both the Commission of Transport and the Commission of Urban Management. By the end of 2018, at least 3,000 buses and 500 taxis will be monitored online. In 2019, such monitoring will be stepped up in other related industries and sectors.
Improved systems for vehicle remote sensing as well as for regular exhaust testing will be set up in testing agencies. By the end of 2018, there will be a two-tiered online monitoring system at municipal and district levels for remote sensing data that will provide real-time, stable transmission.
III. Dust Pollution Control
The system for dust control shall be fine-tuned to include general and separate responsibilities, industry-specific supervision, responsibility by locality, and multi-level management, with a focus on dust from construction sites, road surfaces and bare land. Consistent criteria, technical innovation, monitoring and evaluation will improve city management to create a cleaner urban environment. By 2020, dust pollution in all districts will drop by 30% over 2017.
10. Tighter Overall Supervision
The Ecological Environment Bureau will coordinate with industrial and law enforcement departments to draw up mechanisms for information sharing, inspection and penalties. It will be responsible for monitoring, evaluating and testing all districts and rural towns (sub-districts) on their dust control efforts. By the end of October 2018, a network for monitoring coarse particles will be in place. Starting in November 2018, such particles will be monitored in real time and the data sent to the districts and towns, and will also be included in the monthly evaluation of their performance. The Housing and Urban-Rural Development Commission will take the lead in developing criteria for dust control at different types of construction sites. City management, transportation, water and landscaping departments will be responsible for supervising the sites in their respective sectors. The city administration departments will be responsible for investigating and law enforcement. Each district will be responsible for dust control within its jurisdiction.
11. Construction Site Dust
All districts must follow the requirements of green construction, namely building fences around sites, covering stacked materials, using water spraying for dust suppression, hardening road surfaces, washing down vehicles before they leave sites, and removing building waste in closed truck containers. These are to ensure that contractors meet the six “one hundred percent” targets and fulfill their responsibilities for dust control. Township (sub-district) staff will spot check to see whether construction vehicles are washed down and roads in construction sites are clean, and make sure, issues, if any, are addressed. Building contractors are encouraged to hire third-party companies specialized in control of construction site dust.
Tougher dust standards and regulations. By the end of 2018, the Ecological Environment Bureau shall have in place city-wide dust emission standards for construction sites. The Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development will head the revision of green construction regulations. More detailed dust control criteria for transportation, water management, landscaping and the burying of overhead lines will also be laid down. They will include more specific requirements on enclosure height, sealed containers, water and mist sprays, dust suppressants and wheel washers. The revisions will specify dust prevention and control at demolition sites of unauthorized buildings, as well as the crushing, transportation and post-demolition disposal of their materials. The most current monitoring findings must be posted at the main site entrances and exits for public scrutiny. The Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development will organize greater use of prefabricated buildings at sites, and work with Beijing Major Projects Construction Headquaters Office to install high-efficiency bag filters to ensure rail project sites are fully sealed. Starting in 2019, authorities of all industries involved in demolition, construction and refurbishing within the six urban districts will promote high fencing and where possible fully sealed sites. This will be gradually extended to all other areas of Beijing municipality in 2020.
Better online dust monitoring system. The Ecological Environment Bureau will head efforts to draw up technical specifications for online monitoring of construction site dust, and gradually extend coverage of the system. By the end of 2019, video cameras and the online particulate monitoring system will be installed at city-level water, transportation, landscaping, housing and utilities infrastructure sites, as well as at cement mixing stations, sand and gravel plants and waste disposal sites. The system will be linked to the online monitoring platforms of the other city utility departments, as well as those of environmental protection, city administration and law enforcement.
Stronger closed-loop management. The departments of housing and urban-rural development, city management, transportation, water and landscaping shall each draw up and fine-tune their respective supervision plans. Beijing Municipal Comprehansive Law-Enforcing Bureau of City Administration will review overall numbers of dust checks and infringements, and on a weekly basis rank and inform districts of their performance. The departments of management and law enforcement at all levels will step up on-site inspections, and infractions spotted by video surveillance and online monitoring will be verified within 24 hours and punished according to the law. All traces of dust pollution so detected will promptly be reported to city level administration and district governments. They in turn must verify the accuracy of these findings within 24 hours through on-site inspection and report to the concerned department and district government within one week. Any contractor punished twice for illegal dust pollution with no counter measures taken within the same construction period will be given a 7-day business suspension to correct the problem. Three infractions with no remedy will lead to a six-month suspension of bidding rights within Beijing. Four and more infractions indicating malicious intent and refusal to cease polluting will place the company/contractor on a corporate credit “blacklist”.
12. Street Cleaning
To reach the goal of “clean roads and streets in both urban and rural areas”, the commissions of urban management and of transport will revise the standards for road cleaning and sanitation by the end of September 2018. These will include the specific responsibilities for both mechanical and manual sweeping, cleanliness criteria and service frequencies on main and auxiliary roads, pedestrian walkways and highways, city and suburban streets. District authorities may introduce as they see fit higher cleaning standards than the general municipal ones. They may increase funding to fulfill the labor and budget quotas, and set up a three-tiered road cleaning system for district, township (sub-district) and village (community). Starting in January 2019, all main and auxiliary roads, and pedestrian walkways of all kinds will be covered by cleaning services. By 2020, new techniques on “road flushing, sweeping, washing and garbage collection” will be used for over 92% of urban roads. Led by the Agriculture Commission, plans will be made to include cleaning of all types of rural roads in the efforts to improve rural living environment and build a beautiful countryside.
Evaluation of road cleanliness. The Commission of Urban Management will lead this activity and publish the results every month. The Ecological Environment Bureau will check the dust on main roads with new technologies such as vehicle-mounted light scattering devices and air quality monitoring vehicles, and inform all districts of the results. Starting in September 2018, roads in all key areas will be evaluated for dust pollution. In 2019, this will extend to townships (sub-district) in the six urban districts and to the further outer parts of the city in 2020. District governments will define the responsibilities for street cleaning, establish corresponding mechanisms for notification, rectification and upgrading, provide regular resources, and urge low ranked places to catch up.
13. Surface Dust Control
The Ecological Environment Bureau will organize efforts to use satellite remote sensing technologies in monthly surveys of the locations and remediation of bare land, and vacant land from demolition. Each month the ten townships (sub-districts) that rank lowest in dust control on such surfaces will be given warnings. For the purpose of “addressing both the phenomenon and the root causes of dust pollution”, district governments will carry out comprehensive surveys on the exposed lands in their jurisdiction, and keep an updated record of actions taken. They should employ as appropriate measures such as tree planting, biological mulching and ground hardening to rehabilitate the land. By the end of 2019, all districts shall complete dust control in existing gravel yards and pits, and ensure no new ones are opened. Conservation tillage will be encouraged to reduce seasonal dust from farmland.
Oversight of open pit mines. The Commission of Planning and Natural Resources will organize surveys of open-pit mines, and will close all those that have violated laws and regulations on resources and environment, or infringed the general plan on mineral resources by polluting, damaging the eco-environment and conducting illegal mining. By 2020, 500 hectares of land vacated from abandoned mines will be rehabilitated.
14. Joint Action against the Wrongdoings of Waste Disposal Trucks
Tight control must be in place from the beginning, through procedures, and with severe penalties for infractions. To improve supervision of vehicles, the Commission of Urban Management will oversee revisions of technical criteria for labeling, monitoring and sealing, as well as the installation of devices for satellite positioning and online monitoring of exhaust emissions. Cross-agency collaboration on tracing and punishment will improve the mechanisms for joint law enforcement, regular supervision and inspection. Vehicles that fail to meet the requirements and leave litter on the road will be referred to the city management and law enforcement departments and punished accordingly.
Better overall regulation of construction trucks. City management authorities will tighten supervision before, during and after issuing permits to trucking companies, and will not issue them to those that do not have the necessary business licenses, or whose vehicles are not up to municipal standards.When handling the safety procedures required for housing construction projects, the housing and urban-rural development departments must verify all transportation documents provided by the contractor, such as business licenses, transport vehicle permits, and authorizations for construction. Those that fail to meet these requirements will not receive the necessary Notice of Construction Safety Supervision. Contractors are urged to check truck permits when entering sites, and the truck bodies when exiting so that below standard trucks, or those without permits or with faulty airtight devices are not allowed in, and those with open containers or with dusty bodies are not allowed out. Companies in infringement will be called in for questioning, given time limits to rectify the problems, or have their road permits revoked.
IV. Improved Industrial Structure for Green Production
As part of the development strategy for Beijing as the national capital, noncapital functions will be relocated out of the municipality to promote coordinated development in the greater Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. For this purpose, an economic structure will be put in place in the city that relies on advanced and sophisticated industries with less emphasis on quantity, but more on green and quality growth in all respects and better protection of the environment.
15. Green Industrial Development
The Beijing Catalogue of Prohibited and Restricted New and Additional Industries will be strictly followed, and resource, environment and technical criteria raised to limit the entry of projects with large VOC emissions. Pollutant discharges of any new projects must be offset by reducing those of old ones. The Administrative Committee of Zhongguancun Science Park will launch eco-park construction involving 16 sub-parks that promote recycling, sound development standards, and better quality and performance. Green industrial parks and factories will be built using more advanced technologies for energy conservation and environmental protection.
Encouraging energy conservation and environmental protection businesses. The commissions of development and reform, of economy and information technology and the Ecological Environmental Bureau will further promote businesses that provide integrated solutions for energy conservation and environmental protection. New business models involving third-party pollution control will be encouraged to advance professional, market-driven services for controlling VOC, air dust and cooking fumes. Zhongguancun Science Park will become known for its energy conservation and environmental protection. Qualified companies will be encouraged to move into integrated services for protecting the environment.
16. General Manufacturing and Polluting Enterprises
The Commission of Economy and Information Technology and the Ecological Environmental Bureau will tighten the implementation of the Catalogue of Production Processes, Adjustments, Equipment Phase-out and Elimination for Polluting Industries in Beijing, 2017 Edition by strictly following energy conservation and environmental protection standards, and by refining the mechanism for the phase out of general manufacturing and polluting enterprises. The city will continue to close down those with high pollution rates, high energy consumption and backward technology that do not fit with the strategic plan for Beijing as the national capital. By the end of 2020, a further 1,000 general manufacturing and polluting enterprises in the city will be shut down.
Identification and rectification of companies that fail to meet industrial standards, operate without a license or pollute the environment. The Commission of Economy and Information Technology and the Ecological Environment Bureau will lead a new round of investigations and rectifications of these businesses. Special operations will be carried out to help them improve and upgrade, and together with the second national survey on pollution sources. This will help all districts keep a record of such enterprises in each town (sub-district) and village (community), and set up a general register. Based on this, by the end of 2018, all districts will take appropriate measures to either shut down non-compliant enterprises, or relocate the better ones to industrial parks. Towns and villages will increase routine inspections. City and water management and environmental protection departments will more closely monitor electricity and water consumption, and will use satellite remote sensing to identify hot spots to prevent resurgence of air pollution.
A phase-out mechanism for township industrial clusters. By the end of 2018, all districts shall clean up and overhaul enterprises in industrial clusters that do not follow industrial policies. The departments of economy and information technology, urban and water management together with environmental protection departments shall establish a comprehensive evaluation system to check water and electricity consumption and pollution emissions in these clusters. Starting from 2019, those whose performances rank in the bottom 15% will need to upgrade, or they will be subject to relocation, shut-down, or consolidation. In 2020, total discharges of major pollutants from industrial parks and other clusters will decrease by about 20% over 2017.
17. Industry-specific Pollution
By the end of 2018, a 2018-2020 work program on prevention and control of VOC will be drawn up by the Ecological Environment Bureau and the Commission of Economy and Information Technology. The Bureau of Quality and Technology Supervision shall lead efforts to establish a system of VOC emission criteria up to international standards for such key industries as printing, furniture-making and electronics. Each district shall conduct VOC enforcement inspections in key industries such as petrochemical, automobile manufacturing, printing, furniture-making, machinery and electronics. They will be urged to use low-volatile organic raw and side materials, employ closed production processes, and install efficient systems for solvent recovery and deep treatment of exhaust gas. There will be tighter supervision on the maintenance and operation of pollution treatment facilities, and strict penalties in the case of excessive discharges. Centralized spraying centers with efficient pollution control facilities will be set up in industrial clusters whenever possible to replace the separate efforts of individual enterprises.
Improvement in pollution management in the petrochemical industry. By the end of 2018, key petrochemical companies shall adopt a 2018-2020 environment improvement plan, which will cover full control of pollution from material storage and transportation, implement the leak detection and repair project (LDAR) by prompt replacement of devices such as valves, pumps and compressors that may leak pollutants, and also reduce fugitive emissions. By the end of 2020, VOC emissions will be cut by 10% every year, in an effort to meet the best world environmental standards for petrochemical enterprises. Concentration of VOC and other specific pollutants in the environment will fall by about 10% compared with 2018.
Stricter control of fugitive emissions. The Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development will continue to adjust and rationalize the deployment of concrete mixing stations to ensure that emissions of new ones will be lower than eliminated ones. It will also revise the green production regulations for ready-mixed concrete. By the end of 2020, green production and closed operation upgrades will be complete. District authorities must tighten control of fugitive emissions of cement, sand and other fine particles produced by major industrial users during transportation, loading, unloading, storage, transfer and the manufacturing process. This will be basically finished by the end of 2018.
18. Procedures to Promote Compliance with Industrial Emission Standards
A “single permit” regime for pollutant discharges. The Ecological Environment Bureau will follow national provisions on pollutant permits by issuing them in stages. The provisions set out clear requirements for raw and auxiliary materials, production processes, pollution control equipment, total controlled amounts and staggered production to avoid peak periods. In 2018, the pollutant discharge permit for the ceramics industry will be issued. By 2020, permits will cover all industries on the national pollutant discharge permit list. Beijing Municipal Bureau Statistics and Ecological Environment Bureau will collect data on all major emissions from companies holding these permits. In 2019, pilot programs will be conducted to collect data on pollutant intensity per unit of output.
Clean production audits. Policies and measures will be refined to further motivate companies towards cleaner production, energy conservation, waste and pollution reduction and more efficient performance. By the end of 2020, such clean production audits will be completed for companies with annual VOC emissions of over 25 tons.
V. Improved Energy Structure for Clean Energy Consumption
Coordinated efforts will be made to promote overall conservation of energy and resources, so as to speed up the establishment of a green, low-carbon, safe and efficient modern energy system that operates in both urban and rural areas with increased coordination between areas. By 2020, the use of high-quality energy will increase to 95%, basically eliminating pollution caused by coal.
19. A System of Green Energy
A greater proportion of Beijing’s power will be transmitted from external sources with the help of intelligent technology, while fully ensuring the capital’s needs for secure electricity and heating. Local sources of new energy will be developed. The Commission of Development and Reform, and the Commission of Urban Management, together with other departments, will step up the use of renewable energy for clean heating in key places such as the sub-central areas and the new airport. In principle, there will be no new projects for natural gas CHP cogeneration or natural gas chemical plants.
20. The Final Push to Reduce Coal Consumption
Replacing coal with clean energy in villages will continue, in line with local conditions and by using appropriate technology. This effort will be led by the Agriculture Commission in accordance with the principle that the conversion will start first in the plains and then expand to mountainous areas. By 2018, 450 plains villages will have clean energy in place of coal, and rural housing will be refitted for energy-saving. Five coal-fired central heating plants in Pinggu and Yanqing Districts will have their boilers retrofitted for clean energy thus providing “coal free” heating in the plain areas of Beijing. In 2019, effective technical methods will be adopted to “replace coal with clean energy” in mountainous areas, to meet the needs for heating in long and harsh winters.
Consolidate the results of the conversion. Districts which have replaced coal will ban the use of highly-polluting fuels and close all places that sell bulk coal. Clean heating equipment must be operated and maintained in a system that is safe and stable. Rural areas which have replaced bulk coal with clean energy will take measures to prohibit its sale to prevent its resurgence. Villages where the conversion is still not complete will instead use high-quality coal.
21. Improve Energy Efficiency
The Commission of Development and Reform and other departments will draw up an improved set of standards for energy consumption quotas. The Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, and the Commission of Planning and Natural Resources will revise energy efficiency design standards for new housing with an energy saving rate of over 80%. More buildings with super-low energy consumption will be erected, and green standards for new buildings strictly implemented. These two Commissions together with the Agricultural Commission will step up the refurbishment of existing buildings for energy-saving, and draw up the standards and scope for quake-proof, energy-saving transformation of public buildings in rural areas.
22. Clean Energy Infrastructure
The Commission of Urban Management and the Agricultural Commission will accelerate upgrading power grids in rural areas that have replaced coal with electricity to meet the increased demand for electrified heating. For villages where coal is still to be replaced, there will be advanced planning for building electric power and other facilities and priority given to their construction. Those enterprises involved will build more facilities with the necessary capacity.
VI. Control of Non-point Source Pollution and Reduction of Emissions from Agricultural and Residential Sources
One focus is on emissions from residential sources with emphasis on building and home decoration, catering, and automobile repair. The other is to speed up the development of a circular agricultural economy. The agricultural production structure must be improved to match environmental carrying capacity so that production will be more eco-friendly.
23. Low-volatile Organic Building Coatings and Consumer Products
In line with the principle of “controlling pollution sources with strict accountability”, there will be tight enforcement of content of VOC in architectural coatings and adhesives. The Administration of Quality and Technology Supervision and the Administration of Industry and Commerce will step up oversight of production and sales of building coatings and adhesives. Starting in September 2018, there will be random monthly inspections on manufacturers, supermarkets and building materials markets, and substandard products, their producers and points of sale will be made public. Tendering documents submitted for residential construction and maintenance, road and bridge upkeep, urban eco-management and railway servicing must all include technical requirements for building coatings and adhesives with low volatile organic matter, which must also be a criterion for contract awarding. The departments of housing and urban-rural development, of transport, of urban management and the railway administration will make sure the process is completed properly. Random checks and inspections will first be carried out on government-funded construction projects, either voluntarily or delegated to non-governmental monitoring agencies. Projects funded by other investment will be encouraged to delegate these checks to such agencies too, to guarantee the products used are up to standard. The names of manufacturers whose products fail to do so will be passed on by the Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development and other related departments to the Administration of Quality and Technology Supervision and the Administration of Industry and Commerce. These names will be made public, and if two inspected batches of their products fall short of the criteria, they will be subject to legal action. In addition, more public information on criteria will raise awareness among consumers for products with low VOC content, as these are supported by more positive policies and access requirements.
24. VOC Pollution in the Automobile Repair Industry
The automobile repair industry will be upgraded by following the principle of consolidation, upgrading and closure. The Commission of Transport will take the lead in managing the different aspects of automobile repair, raising requirements for the spray-painting business, and promoting quality. It is proposed to eliminate spray painting in key urban central and sub-central areas, and to centralize sheet spraying in centers outside the sixth Ring Road for more efficient processing. By the end of 2020, spray painting pollution produced by first, second and third categories of automobile repair shops will be subject to standard treatment in the whole of Beijing municipality, and sheet metal and spray painting will no longer take place in key central and sub-central areas. The Environmental Protection Bureau will organize the screening and evaluation of technology and equipment to control VOC in the automobile repair industry. Each year, at least 3,000 legal enforcement inspections will be carried out on automobile repair shops in all districts, and they will be ranked by the number inspections and transgressions. This information will be made public on a regular basis.
25. Cooking Fumes in the Restaurant Industry
Multiple measures will be taken to deal with three types of operations. (1) Illegal and unlicensed businesses will be shut down. The departments of industry and commerce, city management and law enforcement, and food and drug supervision will step up their investigations and sanctions against unlicensed eateries and open-air barbecue stands. (2) Licensed restaurants will be improved. Throughout the year, at least 60,000 inspections will be conducted jointly by the departments of environmental protection, public security, city management and law enforcement, food and drug supervision, industry and commerce, and the fire department. They will focus on densely populated and key business areas, and on those businesses which receive the most complaints from the public. Inspections and fines will be used to promote improvement. Restaurants will be urged to upgrade their equipment so as to meet the discharge standards for air pollutants for the industry. (3) Businesses with particularly serious problems will face severe treatment. Those that refuse to deal with their excessive pollution will be ordered to suspend their operations.
More coordinated management. Mechanisms for better inter-department coordination and information sharing will be established. The food and drug departments will refine their records of restaurants and food services, and regularly provide these to the environmental protection and city management and law enforcement departments. Air pollutant data from these businesses will be incorporated into the quantitative rating system of the industry. The environmental protection and city management and law enforcement departments will notify the food and drug authorities of the businesses that have been penalized more than twice in one year. This data will be the basis for the food and drug departments to downgrade them accordingly. The departments of environmental protection, development and reform, and of finance will work together to draw up policies to encourage the use of high-efficiency oil fume purification equipment. They will also explore a model of third-party treatment which will expand a market for this kind of business and make it easier to meet industry discharge standards.
26. Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Gas-burning Boilers
The Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development will lead the revision of the catalogue of building materials which are promoted, restricted or prohibited. Gas-fueled boilers at or below Level 2 of energy efficiency labeling will be prohibited in all new projects or ones of renovation and expansion. Instead, nitrogen oxide emissions of boilers must meet the Level-5 requirements as stipulated in the national standards.
27. Ammonia Emissions from Agricultural Sources, and the Uses of Straw
The Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Affairs will lead the push to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and to increase the use of organic fertilizers, so there will be an overall decrease in the use of all chemicals. Soil testing formula fertilization will be applied more widely and organic fertilizers will replace chemical ones. There will be better planning on the location and scale of livestock and poultry farming. Commercial farms below the designated scale in restricted areas will be encouraged to voluntarily withdraw in an orderly way. There will be better overall control of ammonia emissions from farms, more use of low protein feed, better ventilation of farms, standardized storage and management of animal feces, and increased use of manure.
Use of straw. The Bureau of Agriculture will spearhead the comprehensive use of straw, which can be turned into fertilizer, animal feed, fuel and raw materials for other purposes. The departments of city management and law enforcement, agriculture, land- scaping and greening and of environmental protection will enforce the ban on burning straw, dry grass, leaves and garbage in the fields, give more authority to districts and towns (sub-districts) to oversee such activities, step up supervision through the use of the electronic networks and carry out special inspections to ban straw burning during summer and autumn harvests.
In 2019, standards for the discharge of air pollutants from urban sewage treatment plants will be formulated and promulgated to treat the relevant air pollutants.
VII. Heavy Seasonal Pollution
The autumn and winter seasons will be the focus for intense efforts to prevent and treat air pollution generally, and to cope with heavy pollution in particular through coordinated efforts among districts.
28. Seasonal Campaigns
The Ecological Environment Bureau will spearhead the formulation of a detailed plan that breaks down into specific tasks to match changes in meteorological conditions and environmental capacity in autumn and winter. The focus for all relevant departments and district governments will be on reducing the number of days of heavy air pollution, preventing and controlling air pollution in autumn and winter, checking on key areas, and further refining goals, tasks and measures. The Commission of Economy and Information will work with the Ecological Environment Bureau and other departments, to increase regulation and control of industrial production in autumn and winter. This means more detailed plans adjusted to enterprises in chemical, building materials and other high-emission industries to stagger their production. These plans will cover production lines, processes and equipment, and the details will be included in the air discharge permits. Businesses which fail to take appropriate treatment measures as scheduled will either have to stagger their production, or suspend it. Negligent businesses in controlled industries listed in the national Catalog of Guidance for the Adjustment of Industrial Structure will either see an increase of staggered and limited production time, or be compelled to suspend production altogether. All districts will organize a new trawl of businesses that fail to meet emissions standards, operate without a license or operate coal-fired boilers and industrial furnaces and kilns. During the autumn and winter months, towns (sub-districts) will organize inspections using the “street whistle” approach, by which the local authorities may summon law enforcement officers to take mandatory actions to enforce the law.
29. Heavy Air Pollution
Regional heavy air pollution forecasting and early warning will come under the overall jurisdiction of the national Ministry of Ecology and Environment, with Ecological Environment Bureau and Beijing Meteorological Service carrying out local district warnings. They will improve long-term joint emergency response mechanisms, and strengthen the system for regional pollutant transmission monitoring and analysis. Following national requirements, the emergency plan will be revised appropriately to raise the ratios of pollutant emissions so that alerts at the yellow, orange and red alert levels will be no lower than 10%, 20% and 30% respectively. A”3+1” emergency response system adapted to meteorological changes and environmental capacity will be set up for cities, districts, towns (sub-districts) and businesses in the municipality. The departments overseeing different sectors must refine their mandatory emergency emission reduction measures in manufacturing industry, transportation, and construction. Emergency responses must be drawn up for key companies that transport bulk materials such as building materials, chemicals and ores. Industrial companies will be managed according to a “one plant, one policy” list of measures which get regular updates, and cover emergency emission reductions at every link of the production process with specific quantitative targets. During episodes of heavy air pollution, there will be tighter supervision and inspections to encourage strict implementation of emergency emission reduction measures, so as to cap peak pollution and slow pollutant concentration.
Emergency measures in towns and sub-districts. All towns must refine their heavy air pollution emergency plans, lay out specific measures, designate the persons in charge, and ensure that all measures are feasible, enforceable and easy to assess. There must be comprehensive checks and detailed records. A list of emergency reduction measures, such as production suspensions or restrictions, should kick in if emission levels supersede requirements. This list must be updated regularly. During early warning periods, there must be timely action and comprehensive inspections under direct supervision to ensure full responsible implementation.
30. Regional Coordination
Under the overall planning of the national Ministry of Ecology and Environment, an early warning system will be set up to follow regional transmissions of air pollution. This will increase cooperation to prevent and control regional air pollution. Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and their surrounding areas will put together a joint plan, which will include information sharing, joint prevention and control, and joint law enforcement. Unified standards and technology-sharing measures will be laid out for restricting VOC and low nitrogen combustion technology where needed. There will be joint inspections on vehicle exhaust, gasoline grade, and the burning of straw in the fields. The focus is on dealing with vehicle overloading and excessive emissions in the region.
VIII. A Participatory Process for Pollution Control
31. Strong Leadership
Pollution control is high on the agenda of the CPC and of the central government. Keeping the skies blue is a national priority. All Beijing district governments and relevant departments have the political responsibility to promote ecological conservation and environmental protection by firmly implementing all policies and measures.
Dual responsibilities for heads of local CPC committees and governments. The heads of district governments have the primary responsibility for air pollution control in their jurisdictions. They must display strong leadership, be aware of the issues and make informed decisions, allocate more resources to implement key policies, address priorities and noticeable problems, and regularly consult on pollution issues. Other leaders in the local government must take up corresponding responsibilities within their specific areas. The governmental departments overseeing industrial growth and production have the dual responsibility of also supervising air pollution reduction in these sectors.
A four-tier mechanism. Under this arrangement, the highest municipal departments draft policies, regulations, by-laws, standards and plans, provide overall guidance, and conduct monitoring and performance evaluations. They are in charge of drawing up the measures for implementing the Three-Year Action Plan in the sectors they supervise. The district governments set their own local rules, which lay out in detail the responsibilities of townships and other organizations, and oversee their implementation. The township (sub-district) governments are responsible for organizing law enforcement and strengthening local oversight. Village (community) authorities are responsible for detecting and promptly reporting illegal discharges.
32. Environmental Responsibilities of Businesses
All businesses regardless of type or size must endorse the concept of green development, meet emission standards and follow rules of green production. They must convert themselves into companies that both conserve resources and are environment-friendly by putting in place sound rules and regulations on environmental protection, improving whole-process management and accepting public scrutiny. Big polluters must willingly disclose their self-monitored pollution discharge data, pollution control measures, responses to episodes of heavy pollution, infractions and punishments, and their remedies. Companies with pollutant discharge permits must release compliance reports within the required time frame.
33. Public Awareness and Participation
The Publicity Department of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee and the Ethical Progress Office will work with the Ecological Environment Bureau, the Commission of Development and Reform , the Beijing Association for Science and Technology, the Commission of Transport and district authorities to organize activities to increase public awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection on occasions of the World Environment Day, World Earth Day, National Energy Conservation Awareness Week and National Low-carbon Day. Principles of air pollution control and of ecological civilization will be widely disseminated through newspapers, TV programs and the internet. The Organizational Department of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee, the Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, the Education Commission and the Ethical Progress Office will work together to include ecological civilization and environmental protection topics in the curricula of regular schools, officials training programs and civic education. The Social Affairs Office, the Federation of Trade Unions, the Women’s Federation and the Communist Youth League will organize and train more volunteers who will reach out to industries, schools and communities through public awareness activities under the theme of “I take action to build a beautiful China”.
Public participation. The government will support the press, environmental organizations and volunteers in activities to inform the public about environmental laws, regulations, policies and best practices, as well as in exposing violations. Public scrutiny will be improved and broadened through effective complaints hotlines 12345, 12369 and 96310. The public will be able to monitor the effectiveness of actions with new media, rewards for whistleblowers and a new system of environment watchers.
IX. Sound Institutional Support
Complete and effective standards and criteria, laws, regulations and policies will be set up, along with mechanisms for monitoring and a more effective use of technology. Law enforcement and supervision will be more rigorous.
34. Laws, Regulations and Standards
To provide legal support for pollution control, the Ecological Environment Bureau and the Legal Affairs Office will revise the Regulations on Air Pollution Control, and draft laws to control mobile sources. A timetable for meeting air quality targets will be drawn up by the end of 2018.
Standards for controlling air pollution. The Ecological Environment Bureau and the Administration of Quality and Technology Supervision will decide on a set of appropriate standards for emissions, VOC content in products, monitoring methods and technical specifications. These standards will be based on the major pollution sources and the need for source control. They will be more stringent than present ones and follow international criteria. Current standards will be reviewed and revised according to control needs and available technology. Business permits will include strict environmental standards.
35. Innovation and Green Technologies
By the end of 2018, the Commission of Science and Technology and the Ecological Environment Bureau will put together Three-Year Action Plans for a number of specific technical areas: accurate detection of pollutant sources; monitoring of intra-regional pollution transmission; combined ways to control and reduce PM2.5 and ozone emissions; and technologies for tracking heavy-duty diesel trucks. The effectiveness of these measures will be evaluated, and the big data collected will be analyzed and used more extensively. And the list of pollution sources and analysis of pollutants will be regularly updated to ensure that decisions are based on sound scientific data.
Technology applications. The Commission of Science and Technology and the Ecological Environment Bureau will oversee the development and application of technologies to support decision making: methods to control and regulate the whole process of NOx and VOC production, and creation of new rapid detection equipment; monitoring technologies for VOC at pollution sites and their use in restaurants and garages; further research and trial on VOC treatment technologies; new methods to increase performance of electric heaters. A big data system for the eco-environment will be set up to facilitate informed decision-making in city management and pollution control.
Trial, evaluation and promotion of new technologies and products. The Commission of Science and Technology and the Ecological Environment Bureau will work with the Administrative Committee of Zhongguancun Science Park to select, try out, assess and promote new techniques for monitoring and forecasting air quality, and the treatment of pollution sources.
36. Improved Monitoring
The Ecological Environment Bureau will spearhead improvements on an all-altitude ambient surveillance network, the use of PM2.5 hotspot grid technologies and a stronger VOC monitoring system. A three-dimensional surveillance system for air quality supported by multiple technologies and big data analysis will constitute a broad network covering city, district and township (sub-district) levels.
Pollution sources. A register of data on air pollution sources will be added to the Second National Survey of Pollution Sources. Under the Ecological Environment Bureau, the automatic monitoring system will provide more precise measurements and criteria for all types and levels of pollution. The list of key polluters will be revised to include elevated emitters with air-vents at heights of over 45 meters, as well as VOC emitters in the petrochemical, chemical, packaging and printing, and industrial coating sectors. These companies will be required to install automatic smoke detectors.
Greater regulatory capacity. The Ecological Environment Bureau will increase the capability of municipal and district regulators to test vehicles and non-road mobile machinery. The laboratories charged with measuring emission contents will also be improved. Priority will be given to upgrading VOC monitoring capacity and increasing the testing equipment. The Administration of Quality and Technology Supervision will look into developing tracing devices and calibration methods for monitoring emissions from heavy-duty trucks.
37. More Funding
The Finance Bureau will head efforts to improve mechanisms to ensure budget arrangements for air pollution control, and guarantee there is sufficient funding for the Action Plan. More financing channels will be opened by the Reform and Development Commission, the Bureau of Financial Work, the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, and the Finance Bureau. Further support will be given to PPP projects for the control of air pollution. Qualified financial institutions and companies will be encouraged to issue bonds to finance programs for air pollution control and energy conservation. The Ecological Environment Bureau and the Finance Bureau will design a compensation mechanism to encourage actions on improving air quality and ecological conservation.
Economic policy incentives. The departments responsible for reform and development, IT for the economy, environment, agriculture, city management, commerce and finance will set flexible and differentiated pricing policies for electricity, water and gas, to encourage businesses to upgrade and go green. There will be increased financial incentives for the use of new and renewable energy and electricity to replace fossil energy. Infrastructure subsidies will be given to rural households to replace coal with renewable energy. Taxes based on laws to protect the environment will be strictly and fully collected; preferential tax policies will also be applied.
Green finance and procurement. The Finance Bureau and Ecological Environment Bureau will continue to build and refine a green finance system that will include a green fund, green credit and green insurance. They will look into establishing a Beijing Green Development Fund and promote compulsory liability insurance for environmental pollution. By the end of September 2018, the Bureaus will refine the government’s green procurement policies, and expand the scope of green procurement.
38. Stricter Law Enforcement
Departments responsible for the environment, traffic and public security, city management and administrative law enforcement, industry and commerce, and quality supervision will regulate air pollution infractions through an inspection process with “randomly selected inspectors making checks on random targets”, and the results will be made public. Their methods include routine supervision, surprise inspections, directed actions and response to public complaints. Technical backup includes on-line monitoring of fume gas, hotspot grids, mobile surveillance, and monitors of power usage. All types of violations will be penalized: fines calculated by the day, property closure, suspension or curtailing of production, detention of management and complete shutdown. The administrative and criminal authorities will launch joint law enforcement action in key districts, at key time periods and in key sectors, and violators will lose their credit rating. Law enforcement will cover all aspects: production, processing, storage, transport, distribution and emissions.
39. Oversight, Evaluation and Accountability
All problems that come to light during inspections by Central Supervision Office of Ecological and Environmental Protection and by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, must be dealt with through focused actions to address their root causes. Air pollution control will be the focus of municipal oversight. District authorities, city departments and local SOEs will be inspected and held accountable for fulfilling the targets set in the Action Plan. Changes in air quality and noticeable incidents will lead to random and spot checks. Common problems like dust pollution and repeated complaints by the public will be dealt with through more effective general inspection tours, specific assignment of tasks and talks with those involved. District governments will fulfill their responsibilities for pollution control through their own inspection programs and mechanisms.
Evaluation and accountability. There will be a more rigorous system of “weekly reports, monthly rankings and quarterly adjustments”, to ensure timely review of policies and measures, and coordinated action. The extent to which the annual and final targets and tasks are fulfilled will count as important indicators of personnel performance and will be linked to rewards and punishments. Those in charge of specific projects as well as senior responsible personnel will be evaluated based on the total number of environmental issues, particularly the air pollution problems they have been able to resolve. City and district governments and departments as well as SOEs under their jurisdiction will be held accountable for implementing all policies, and those found to have been lax, ineffective or negligent will be referred to the disciplinary department for investigation and possible legal action. Falsification or alteration of monitoring data will lead to a void evaluation, and disciplinary or legal action.
The Three-Year Action Plan for Protecting Beijing’s Blue Skies was issued by the Beijing Municipal Government on September 7, 2018.
(All information in this document is authentic in Chinese. English is provided for reference only. In case of any discrepancy, the Chinese version shall prevail.)