Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee has made instructions on accelerating the innovation and development of blockchain industry and its technology and exploring the blockchain data sharing modes, so as to bring better government services experience to the public. To fully implement his important instructions, the Beijing Municipal Government made arrangements. The Beijing Municipal Administration of Government Services, the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, and the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Economy and Information Technology have organized relevant departments to promote the applications of blockchain in the government services and achieved initial fruition. The Expert Group of the Beijing Blockchain Workgroup compiled The Blue Book on the Innovative Applications of Blockchain in the Field of Government Services in Beijing (First Edition) (hereinafter referred to as the "Blue Book") and officially released it recently. The Blue Book is the first bluebook in China on the applications of blockchain in the field of government services. The Blue Book would play a very important role, as a source of references, in promoting the applications of blockchain in the field of government services for the other provinces and cities across the country and even for the rest of the world.
The Blue Book affirms the necessity, feasibility and significance of Beijing's blockchain construction in the field of government services from the perspectives of "New Infrastructure", the building of digital government, and the advancing of the modernization of China's system and capacity for governance. Due to the inherent trust mechanism of this technology, blockchain is a "TRUST" information infrastructure in the "New Infrastructure" and plays a key role in the new generation of integrated information technologies. Vigorously promoting the applications of blockchain in the field of government services is conducive to further improving the efficiency of government services data sharing and collaborative service applications handling so as to facilitate the development of "programmable government services", to promoting the Internet Plus Government Services initiative so as to advance the digital transformation of governments, and to boosting the innovation of government management modes so as to build a new social governance system.
The Blue Book describes the overall blueprint for the development of blockchain in the field of government services in Beijing, which is one of the seven main scenarios of blockchain applications in Beijing. The core framework of the top-level design of the blockchain applications in the field of government services mainly includes: setting unified standards for blockchain applications in the field of government services; enhancing the circulation, openness and sharing of government service data based on the needs of government services; building the capacity for collaborative handling of government services application cross different departments and regions; constructing a blockchain-based governance architecture for digital government; promoting the formulation of relevant laws and regulations simultaneously to ensure the orderly and compliance-based construction of blockchain.
The Blue Book summarizes Beijing's work experience in blockchain applications in the field of government services in the first half of the year and the initial successes achieved in improving the effectiveness of government services applications handling. Since November 2019, under the overall coordination of the Beijing Blockchain Workgroup and the guide of its Expert Group, the Beijing Municipal Administration of Government Services, the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, and the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Economy and Information Technology have organized relevant government departments to promote the applications of blockchain in the field of government services. At present, 140 specific application scenarios have been accomplished in the field of government services. As a result, the sharing of on-chain data has been achieved to streamline the materials submission procedure, the data from different departments have been connected through blockchain to improve the efficiency of the handling of government service applications, and government services have been provided through blockchain to promote the resumption of production. Specifically, the materials to be submitted have been reduced by 40% on average, and the times of required on-site visits has been reduced from five or six times to only once, which has made a contribution to the overall promotion of epidemic prevention and control as well as economic and social development, to the deepening of the reforms to "streamline administration, delegate power, improve regulation and upgrade services", and to the optimization of the business environment.
The Blue Book selects 12 excellent application cases. With case collection and experts review, these 12 application cases are elaborated in the following aspects: the cognitive understanding of blockchain technology, solutions to existing problems, and the effect of application. Among them, the blockchain application for customs clearance facilitation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region led by the Beijing Municipal Commerce Bureau puts the data of such units as customs, ports, commerce, taxation, industrial parks, and cargo terminals on chain to improve the efficiency of cross-border trade. The eKYC system led by the Beijing Local Financial Supervision and Administration and the blockchain-based financial service platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Haidian District have reduced the data that enterprises need to file and report by 80%, have shortened the time for opening a bank account by 40%, and have helped SMEs ease their "difficulties in financing". The Beijing Municipal Finance Bureau utilizes blockchain to promote the use of financial electronic bills in such fields as medical care and charity. The blockchain-based registration system of real estate led by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Planning and Natural Resources has realized the "whole-process online transaction of non-residential buildings stock among enterprises", which has reduced 100,000 on-site visits. The Beijing Municipal Administration of Government Service introduces blockchain-based multi-terminal electronic certificates and licenses. Through putting frequently used electronic certificates and licenses on chain, 253 corporate-related matters and 65 personal matters can be handled without paper certificates, and 100,000 copies of materials can be streamlined in one year, which can provide general basic application for blockchain applications in the field of government services of the entire city. Haidian, Xicheng, Chaoyang, Shunyi, the Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area and other areas of Beijing have piloted such blockchain application scenarios as the identification of hi-tech enterprises in Zhongguancun, the training and subsidies for high-skilled talents, the registration as well as the modification of registration information of small loan enterprises, the profession qualification registration for nurses, medical aid, the reimbursement of medical insurance, and policy implementation one-stop service. They have also piloted the themed activity of "doing one thing well for citizens". These district-level pilot projects have been extended to the grassroot levels such as streets and towns.
The Blue Book showcases the leading edges of Beijing's blockchain companies, blockchain industry, blockchain technology and blockchain applications, leverages the spillover effect of Beijing's blockchain technology and services, and demonstrates Beijing's determination and confidence in using application to drive technology iteration and industrial development to race to control the commanding height of blockchain industry, and to build itself into a highland of blockchain technology innovations, of blockchain application demonstrations, of blockchain industrial developments, and of blockchain talents.
The Blue Book looks forward to the future trend for further optimization and development of the applications of blockchain. Guided by the technical specifications of blockchain platform for government services, the future-oriented and blockchain 3.0-based "programmable government services" will further improve the consensus algorithm as well as the efficiency of smart contract, and deepen the applications of blockchain technology to collaborative government service applications handling, so as to facilitate the applications of blockchain technology in the field of government services, to promote the building of a more refined, diversified, intelligent, and convenient high-quality digital government, and to continuously improve the digital governance of the government.
The Blue Book is specifically organized and compiled by the General Technical Team and the Expert Group in the Blockchain Application in Government Services of the Expert Group of the Beijing Blockchain Workgroup, with Beijing Academy of Edge Computing and China Electronics Standardization Institute as supporting units, the Beijing Municipal Administration of Government Services, the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, and the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Economy and Information Technology as organizing units. The Blue Book condenses the thoughts and explorations of experts, government departments, enterprises and scientific research institutions, and proposes a path for the promotion and improvement of the construction model of the applications of blockchain in the field of government services. As a fast-growing emerging technology, the underlying foundation and upper applications of blockchain technology are still in the early stages of development. At present, the Blue Book is in its first edition. When the application scenarios become richer and a more in-depth technical knowledge is gained, it will be updated in due course to form a rapid iteration mechanism featuring "drawing lessons and optimizing while practicing and applying".